Date: Wed, 09 Jun 1999 12:41:38 -0500 (EST)
Subject: CSWA Newsletter of 6/9/99
To: AASMAIL:;;wellesley.edu

            AAS Committee on the Status of Women
     weekly issues of  6/09/99, ed. by Priscilla Benson
***  send email and addresses to aaswomenwellesley.edu  ***

This week's issues:

1. CSWA in Chicago
2. Washington babysitting info?
3. Women Scientists Prefer Industry to Academia

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1. CSWA in Chicago

The open CSWA meeting at the Chicago AAS was on the topic 
of:  Women Faculty in the Sciences:  How Are We Doing?  Our 
keynote speaker was Dr. Carolyn Narasimhan, Associate Dean 
of DePaul University.  She gave some statistics from the 
1998 NSF "Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in 
Science and Engineering" which show the following:

                       % Women in 1975     % Women in 1993
Bachelors Degree             ~ 20              ~ 35
PhD                          < 10              ~ 18
Jr. Faculty                  < 10              < 25
Sr. Faculty                  <  5              ~  6

Unfortunately, the only statistics which have separated out 
astronomy from other physical sciences are for graduate 
students.  The American Mathematical Society has gathered 
statistics on women in mathematics regularly since 1957.  
These include data on enrollments, majors, faculty size and 
composition, faculty salaries, and new doctoral recipients.

Three recommended studies on the issues include:

"Talking About Leaving: Why Undergraduates Leave the 
Sciences" by Elaine Seymour and Nancy Hewitt (1977)

"Gender Differences in Science Careers:  The Project Access 
Study" by Gerhard Sonnert and Gerald Holton (1995)

"A Study on the Status of Women Faculty in Scinece at MIT" 
(1999) (Read about this study in the current issue of 
Status.  If you don't already subscribe, email 
lscholzaas.org to receive a copy and/or be added to the 
subscription list)

Meg Urry then gave a brief report on the statistics gathered 
on astronomy by the Space Telescope Science Institute in 
1992 and 1999 from 32 select graduate departments and four 
major astronomy centers.  The number of astronomers at all 
levels has increased by about 25% over the seven years, and 
the percent of women at each level has increased slightly.  
However, the number of male postdocs at these select 
institutions in 1999 is 60%(+/- 4%) of the number of male 
graduate students in 1992, whereas the number female 
postdocs in 1999 is 51% (+/- 7%)of the number of 1992 female 
graduate students; this slightly underestimates the 
discrepancy because the numbers of women graduate students 
have increased over the last 7 years.  The ratios of postdoc 
to graduate student at a single epoch shows a larger 
discrepancy with gender: in 1999 the ratio for men is 359 
postdocs to 615 graduate students (58% +/- 4%), compared to 
90:217 (41% +/- 5%) for women.  This is similar to 1992, 
when the ratio was 50% for men and 36% for women (with 
similar uncertainties).  The limited STScI statistics thus 
suggest that women are still not progressing equally with 
men.  Preliminary results from an AAS survey of a much 
broader range of institutions this spring are in line with 
the STScI data.

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2. Washington babysitting info?
From: Preethi Pratap preethihaystack.mit.edu

I have to go for a meeting at the NSF in July. I was 
wondering if someone who used the childcare at the AAS 
meeting in January 1998 (in DC) can help me find the name of 
the company and tell me a little about their experience. I 
seem to remember it was some professional childcare agency. 

Thanks!

Preethi Pratap
pprataphaystack.mit.edu

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3. Women Scientists Prefer Industry to Academia
From:	IN%"infocatalystwomen.org"

Monica Blaizgis/Debbie Zarlin (212) 514-7600

CATALYST STUDY FINDS WOMEN SCIENTISTS ATTRACTED TO CAREERS 
IN INDUSTRY OVER ACADEMIA COMPANIES CAN DO BETTER AT 
RECRUITING WOMEN SCIENTISTS

New York City, June 9, 1999-American industry eagerly seeks 
scientists to hire yet companies have a virtually unmined 
talent pool of women to draw from, according to a new study 
released today by Catalyst. Women Scientists in Industry: 
Making It in Both Management and Technical Roles, based on 
in-depth interviews with 30 leading women scientists, finds 
that over half-17 out of 30-report that they were given 
little or no information about the corporate job market for 
industrial science careers. Nearly a third of the women 
scientists in the study (9 out of 30) chose the business 
sector not because they were recruited into it, but because 
they did not feel welcomed into academia. Catalyst finds 
that these women were attracted to applied science and 
product development. 

"Companies need to do a better job of marketing themselves 
to the next generation of women scientists. One way to do 
that is to build stronger relationships between universities 
and corporations," said Sheila Wellington, Catalyst 
President. Between 1975 and 1995, the percent of total 
science doctorates earned by women nearly doubled, from 16 
to 31 percent (U.S. National Science Foundation, 1995). "As 
this trend continues and accelerates in the next century, 
the imperative for business to recruit, retain, and advance 
talented women scientists becomes increasingly evident," 
Wellington continued. "But companies seem to have scant 
knowledge about recruiting and retaining this highly 
marketable talent pool." 

Profile of Women Scientists-All the women (30) in the study 
are employed in industry. Sixteen are vice president or 
higher in their companies; six are directors; six are 
project managers; and two are fellows. The majority of women 
in the study are on the management track, as opposed to the 
technical one. 

Barriers to Advancement-Like other groups of women in 
business that Catalyst has studied, women scientists do face 
organizational barriers to advancement. These include an 
absence of female role models; an absence of mentors; lack 
of line experience; isolation; exclusion from informal 
networks; stereotypes and preconceptions; style differences; 
risk-averse supervisors; and work/life balance. Twenty-seven 
of the 30 women in this study report that they had to 
struggle against the perception that science was a male 
pursuit.

Success Strategies-Catalyst's study of women scientists 
surfaced the following strategies for getting ahead: 
cultivating technical expertise; developing a successful 
style; obtaining stretch assignments; having a mentor; 
networking both inside and outside the company.

Recommendations-The Catalyst study provides recommendations 
for companies and individual women. Recommendations 
headlining the list for companies emphasize recruitment-
focusing on increasing the visibility of careers in business 
for women in science and creating win-win collaborations 
between academic and the industrial setting: (1) fund 
internships that provide promising female graduate students 
and professors with access to successful women scientists in 
your company and exposure to stimulating research 
activities; (2) set up mentoring programs that reach down 
into educational institutions; (3) collaborate with 
professional associations of women in science; (4) provide 
fellowships and seed money for research to promising women 
graduate students who are recruitment targets for your 
company; (5) provide funding for visiting lectureships for 
distinguished industrial scientists; and (6) provide funding 
for distinguished academic scientists to work with 
scientists in your company as "loaned academics."

For women pursuing science degrees: keep career options 
open; conduct information interviews with women scientists 
working in industry; consider applying for an internship in 
a corporation; and find out the representation of women 
scientists in the company. 

Corporate Best Practices-AT&T's Graduate Fellowship Program, 
begun in 1975, offers educational support to women and 
under-represented minorities. It covers all educational 
expenses during the school year, a stipend for living 
expenses, support for attending scientific conferences, and 
pairs graduate students with mentors who are experienced 
scientists. Texas Instruments launched its Women's 
Professional Development Team in 1994 to increase women's 
representation on the technical ladder. The team established 
accountability for diversity by implementing annual 
diversity reviews of technical ladder statistics by TI's 
Technical Council Chair; expanded career development 
policies and programs, including mentoring workshops and 
conferences for women in technology; and increased technical 
training for employees. 

Methodology-Catalyst first conducted focus groups with 35 
women scientists at three Fortune 500 companies.  Data from 
the focus group discussions were instrumental in devising 
the protocol for the individual interviews with the 30 
pioneering women scientists ultimately selected for this 
study.

About Catalyst-Catalyst is the nonprofit research and 
advisory organization that works with business to advance 
women. For more information about Catalyst, please visit our 
website at www.catalystwomen.org or call Monica Blaizgis in 
the media department: (212) 514-7600.

Women Scientists in Industry: Making It In Both Management 
and Technical Roles was sponsored by Tampax, a product of 
Procter & Gamble.
                                                     
Interviews from Women Scientists in Industry, Catalyst, 
1999. c 1999 by Catalyst. 120 Wall Street, 5th floor, New 
York, NY 10005. Tel (212) 514-7600; Fax (212) 514-8470; 
www.catalystwomen.org

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End of CSWA Newsletter for 6/9/99